THE CAMBODIAN RICE TODAY
Introduction about Cambodian country and peoples
In the nearly historical period of
Cambodia is well known with The Khmer
translated as Red
had been ruling in from
1975 to 1979, led by Pol
Sen, and Khieu
Samphan. The Khmer Rouge had directly killed
more than a million Cambodians from executions and a million of others died from overwork, starvation and
disease, out of a total population of 8 million in this period. Cambodia
Flowing south through the country’s eastern regions is the
. East of the Mekong the
transitional plains gradually merge with the eastern highlands, a region of
forested mountains and high plateaus that extend into Mekong River Laos and . In southwestern Vietnam Cambodia two distinct upland blocks, the Krâvanh Mountains and
the Dâmrei Mountains, form another highland region
that covers much of the land area between the Tonle Sap and the . In this remote and largely
uninhabited area, Gulf of Thailand ’s highest peak, rises to
an elevation of 5,949 feet (1,813 metres). The southern coastal region
adjoining the Phnom Aural, Cambodia is a narrow
lowland strip, heavily wooded and sparsely populated, which is isolated from
the central plain by the southwestern highlands. Gulf
The most distinctive geographical feature is the inundations of the Tonle Sap (
), measuring about
2,590 km2 (1,000 sq mi) during the dry season and expanding
to about 24,605 km2 (9,500 sq mi) during the rainy season.
This densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, is the
heartland of Great
Much of this area has been designated as abiosphere reserve. Cambodia
The short history
was an independing absolute or monarchy state Cambodia
The King of Cambodia is the head of state of the
The King's power is limited to that of a symbolic figurehead to whom people are
to give love and respect. The monarch also represents peace, stability, and
prosperity to the Khmer people. The King of Cambodia is an
elected monarch, making Kingdom of Cambodia
one of the few elected monarchies of the world. Cambodia
The last Cambodian king before 1863:
The King Ang Duong (1796-1860) the time of Reign (1641-1860).
French protectorate of
The list of
in this period: Cambodia
1-The King Norodom (I) (1834-1904), the time of Reign (1860-1904).
2-The King Sisiwath (1840-1927), the time of Reign (1904-1927).
3-The King Sosiwath Monivong (1875-1941), the time of Reign (1927-1941).
3-The King Norodom (II) Sihanouk (31/10/1922-today), the time of Reign (25/4/1941-2/3/1953).
Cambodia under king Norodom I became a
protectorate of . France
In 1884, the French authorities forced King Norodom I to sign a treaty giving the French Protectorate virtually complete administrative control over
, including finances, a
life line of Norodom's rule. Norodom resisted but with the French gunboats
anchored outside the front gate of the royal palace he had no choice but to
The French moved the capital from Oudong to Phonm Penh. Norodom could do nothing to prevent this, and died in 1904 in
. His body was cremated in the traditional
Buddhist fashion in 1906. Phnom
He is considered to be the first modern king of
Merge into Indochinese
In October 1887, the French announced the formation of the Union Indochinoise (Union of Indochina), which at that time comprised Cambodia, already an autonomous French possession, and the three regions of Vietnam (Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina).In 1893, Laos was annexed after the French threatened Siam's King Chulalongkorn with war, thereby forcing him to give up the territory.
In 1904, King Norodom I died. The French chose The King Sisiwath (1840-1927), the time of Reign (1904-1927). After that was The King Sosiwath Monivong (1875-1941), the time of Reign (1927-1941).King Monivong died in April 1941. After that King Norodom Shianouk was chosen.
During the tumultuous period between 1946 and 1953, Sihanouk displayed the remarkable aptitude for political survival that sustained him before and after his fall from power in March 1970.
In June 1952, Sihanouk announced the dismissal of his cabinet, suspended the constitution, and assumed control of the government as Prime minister.
Between 1874 and 1962, the total population increased from about 946,000 to 5.7 million.
Effection by Vietnam War
In 1955, upon his father's death in 1960, Sihanouk again became head of state, taking the title of prince.
As the Vietnam War progressed, Sihanouk adopted an official policy of neutrality in the Cold War. Sihanouk allowed the Vietnamese communists to use
Cambodia as a sanctuary and a supply route for
their arms and other aid to their armed forces fighting in .
This policy was perceived as humiliating by many Cambodians. South Vietnam
in 1970 Sihanouk was ousted
by a military coupled by Prime Minister General Lon
Prince Sisowath Sirik
Between 1964 and 1975,
Republic of Vietnam forces
and U.S. forces bombed on about 2,756,941 tons of bombs and there were many hundred
of Cambodians died by U.S bombs. Total of U.S bombs were dropped on Cambodia Cambodia, more than the bombs dropped during all
of World War II, including the nuclear strikes on Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, and likely means is the
most heavily bombed country in history. Cambodia
Khmer Rouge regime
Khmer Rouge is the name from French that was called by Sihanouk to show the Cambodian communism forces, translated into English is “Red Khmer”.
The Khmer Rouge reached
and took power in 1975. The
regime, led by Pol
Pot, changed the official name of the country to Democratic
Kampuchea. The regime modelled itself on Maoist China during the Great Leap
Forward. The regime immediately evacuated the cities and sent the entire
population on forced marches to rural work projects. Phnom Penh
They attempted to rebuild the country's agriculture on the model of the 11th century, discarded Western medicine, and destroyed temples, libraries, and anything considered Western. At least a million Cambodians were killed directly from executions and a million of others died from overwork, starvation and disease, out of a total population of 8 million.
In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in
but by 1984, due to Khmer Rouge killings and to emigration, only about 61,400
Chinese remained in the country. Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths
during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese population
from between 250,000-300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984. Cambodia
The peace settlement in Cambodia
In November 1978, Vietnamese troops came in
to help Cambodian peoples attacking the Khmer Rouge. Cambodia
Peace efforts began in
in 1989 under the State
of Cambodia, culminating two years later in October 1991 in a comprehensive
peace settlement. The UN was given a mandate to enforce a ceasefire and deal with
refugees and disarmament known as the United Nations Transitional Authority
in Cambodia (UNTAC).
In 1993, Norodom Sihanouk was restored as King of Cambodia, but all power was in the hands of the government established after the UNTAC sponsored elections.
The Cambodian People's Party (CPP) is the major ruling party in
The CPP controls the lower and upper chambers of parliament, with 73 seats in
the National Assembly and 43 seats in the Senate. The opposition Sam Rainsy Party is the second largest party in Cambodia
with 26 seats in the National Assembly and 2 in the Senate. Cambodia
The foreign relations of
are handled by the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs under
attended the inaugural East Asia Summit in . On November 23, 2009, Malaysia
reinstated the membership to the International Atomic Energy Agency
first became a member of IAEA on February 6, 1958 but withdrew its membership
on March 26, 2003. Cambodia
The Cambodian society and health today
-Population: 14,701,717 (July 2011 est.).
-Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.2% (male 2,375,155/female 2,356,305), 15-64 years: 64.1% (male 4,523,030/female 4,893,761), 65 years and over: 3.8% (male 208,473/female 344,993) (2011 est.)
-Median age: total: 22.9 years, male: 22.2 years, female: 23.7 years (2011 est.)
-Population growth rate:1.698% (2011 est.).
-Birth rate: 25.4 births/1,000 population (2011 est.).
-Death rate: 8.07 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.).
-Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.).
-Urbanization: urban population: 20% of total population (2010), rate of urbanization: 3.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.).
-Sex ratio: at birth: 1.045 male(s)/female, under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female, 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female, 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female, total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.).
-Infant mortality rate: total: 55.49 deaths/1,000 live births, male: 62.54 deaths/1,000 live births, female: 48.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.).
-Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.67 years, male: 60.31 years, female: 65.13 years (2011 est.).
-Total fertility rate: 2.84 children born/woman (2011 est.).
-HIV/AIDS : adult prevalence rate 0.5% , people living with HIV/AIDS 63,000, deaths 3,100 (2009 est.).
-Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high, food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever, vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
-Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian.
-Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%.
-Religions: Buddhist (official) 96.4%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (1998 census).
-Languages: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English, Vietnamese, Chinese.
-Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write. Total population: 73.6%,
male: 84.7% , female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
male: 84.7% , female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
-School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years, male: 10 years, female: 9 years (2007).
-Education: expenditures 2.1% of GDP (2009).
-Maternal mortality rate: 290 deaths/100,000 live births (2008).
-Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 28.8% (2008).
-Health expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2009).
-Physicians density: 0.227 physicians/1,000 population (2008).
-Hospital bed density: 0.1 beds/1,000 population (2004).
Source: The CIA factbook 2012
The potential of rice production in Cambodia
The land for growing rice of Cambodia
For the upper land the farmers grow (transplanting) Wet Season Rice. There are various crops for Wet Season Rice, but the one that we can find a lot is Neang Minh, Neang Kon, Phaka Kakhagney and Fragrant Rice which are produced a lot in northwest and central areas of
. These types of rice take
time from 5 to 6 months from transplanting to harvesting. There are millions tons
of these rice are harvested per year. Cambodia
For Dry Season Rice farmers grow two times per year.
-First they start in December or January and they start harvesting at end February or March.
-Second farmers start growing in May or June and they start harvesting at the end of August and September.
There are many kinds of Dry Season Rice. Farmers buy seeds from neighboring countries especially from
. So, the quality of this
rice is the same as rice in Vietnam
and the prices in purchasing this rice is far cheaper comparing to the Wet
Season Rice. In the past Cambodian farmers were not interested in growing Dry
Season Rice. Vietnam
people do not use cook Dry Season Rice for their food because it does not have
good taste as the Wet Season ones. Recently because of market potentiality,
Cambodian farmers try to maximize growing Dry Season Rice in many regions, in
particular, in the central and south-East regions of Cambodia . This country still has
many million hectares of land to be invested in both Wet Season and Dry Season
Rice farming. Cambodia
Camrice is a collective group of
rice millers and rice
traders who are equipped with both excellent capacity productions in supplying
various types of rice and professional services responding to the requests of
the buyers. Camrice has partners around Cambodia Cambodia,
in particular, in north-west, central and southeast of . Cambodia
Camrice has established under the umbrella of supporting and leadership of Small and Medium Industry Association of Cambodia (SMI
Camrice (Cambodian rice) is focused on agro business both import and export,
while SMI CAMBODIA
is focusing on general business coordination. For example, supporting business
parting, business consultation and identifying resource markets for its
Camrice was established after it had done completely success of rice exporting to numbers of European Countries such as German,
With our professional and responsible rice trading, Europe Union issued LICENSE
to import Cambodia Rice to Belgium Europe on August
12, 2009. For the year of 2010, Camrice continues to widen its markets to
other countries in Europe and some countries in Asia such as Taiwan, China
and Hong Kong.
Camrice has done rice exporting to Europe because of good cooperation of Schepen & Co which a professional brokering company with long experience more than 100 years, and this company knows every well international markets and the situation of
rice. Schepen & Co.
came to meet Camrice through the introduction of International Trade Center
(ITC) in the December 2008. ITC and Ministry of Commerce, have always worked
closely in doing Cambodia Rice Marketing such as organizing meeting between
rice sellers & buyers of Francophone countries, inviting the buyers to visit
Cambodia Cambodia for Cambodia Rice
Export opportunity and delegating rice millers and traders
to take business visits to International Rice Markets. Cambodia
The Royal Government of
1. The Royal Government of
(RGC) has made a strong commitment
to ensure further implementation of the Rectangular Strategy-Phase II,
following a successful efforts to lead the Cambodian economy out of the
most difficult time of recent global financial crisis and economic downturn. Cambodia
2. In realizing the vision of agriculture development, the RGC has adopted a three-pronged strategy-productivity enhancement, diversification and agricultural commercialization (from subsistence to commercial agriculture)-through implementing a package of interrelated measures.:
(1) infrastructure building and enhancement (roads, irrigations, energy/electricity and information and communication technologies (ICT);
(2) improvement in the provision of extension services and agricultural inputs;
(3) land management reform;
(6) farmer organization; and
(7) institutional building and coordination.
In the current context, agricultural commercialization has become more dynamic in lights of global economic changes due to increasing food demand and prices. This trend bears some implications on, and revives the impetus of, paddy rice and other crops production in
which have the potential for further higher growth. Cambodia
has a big potential in paddy rice production in order to increase its milled
rice export in the future. To guide its vision for the preparation of
economic development policy, the RGC has an ambition to turn Cambodia into a major “rice - white
gold” exporting country in the international market. Cambodia
Paddy rice production could reach 7.3 million tons in 2010-2011, after a remarkable rebound over the past decade. With an estimated domestic consumption of approximately 3.14 million tons of paddy rice, a provision for seeds and harvest loss, statistical data shows a surplus of 3.32 millions, which can be processed into milled rice for export.
Moreover, as a result of increasing investments in the construction of irrigation systems, paddy rice farming, expansion and intensification of cultivated land, as well as the increasing paddy rice yield (caused by improved irrigation, seeds and fertilizers supply and growing techniques), the RGC expects that rice production will rebound further, allowing Cambodia to achieve a surplus of paddy rice, which will be processed into milled rice for export. In this regard,
must build a robust, high
quality and reliable rice milling industry. Cambodia
4. At the same time,
has a unique opportunity
to expand its milled rice market niche in the global markets. The global milled
rice trade is estimated to reach 31 million tons in 2010, in which Cambodia Thailand and Vietnam
will remain the biggest supplier of milled rice export, and Cambodia and are expected to emerge as
new leading milled rice-exporting countries in the near future. Myanmar
Furthermore, not only there are not many milled rice-exporting countries, with most of them in Asia, especially Southeast Asia, there are more and more countries such as the
Malaysia and which
have become rice-importing countries. As such, this potential in global milled
rice market will provide fresh opportunities for Cambodian farmers. Indonesia
5. Realizing this opportunity, the RGC has introduced a series of measures, in cooperation with farmers, rice millers, traders and development partners, to address the many challenges ranging from the high cost of rice processing, transportation, export processing and clearance, to the creation of funds to support and develop agriculture, and the provision of additional fiscal incentives to this sector. The RGC has chosen milled rice as a priority export item and will pay close attention to this policy, based on the following rationales of strategic importance:
-First, the diversification of
’s sources of growth
through increasing paddy rice production and milled rice export could
complement other sectoral growth, including garment. Cambodia
-Second, the rice sector could have a big potential comparable to that of the garment sector in terms of gross export value and value added generated throughout the supply chain including employment. If rice export could reach 3 million tons, the total export value would amount to USD 2.1 billion (approximately 20% of GDP) or equivalent to about USD 600 million (approximately 5% of GDP) in value added contribution to the national economy.
-Third, the promotion of milled rice export is the first step to catalyse the export of other agricultural products such as rubber and other crops.
6. In this context, the RGC will lay out its vision and strategy encompassing concrete short term policy measures to be implemented immediately, and providing a medium to long term policy direction to promote milled rice export both in terms of quantity and branding of Cambodian milled rice in the global market and setting up institutional arrangements with clear responsibilities assigned to ministries/institutions so as to ensure a rigorous implementation of this important policy.
The following table shows the erea, yield and total paddy rice production of
from 1961to 2010: Cambodia
[ ] = Official data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data
Source: FAOSTAT | © FAO Statistics Division 2012 | 15 April 2012
2-Cambodia-From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
7-Michael Shean | firstname.lastname@example.org
8-Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research-http://aciar.gov.au/publication/CoP12